Some determinants of the innovation propensity of mexican products: The effect of R&D expenditures and knowledge spillovers

  • Alba Verónica Méndez Delgado Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila
Keywords: innovation, knowledge spillovers, R&D, CDM model
JEL Classification: O33, O31


This paper estimates the intensity of R&D expenditure, and is related to the propensity to innovate in the Mexico’s manufacturing firms. Moreover, the direct effect of knowledge spillovers over innovations is analyzed. The empirical analysis provides evidence that agreements with educational institutions and public financing has a positive effect over R&D expenditure and innovations. This paper concludes that the spillovers is relevant as they have a positive effect on the innovations; and the results show that excluding the spillovers from the analysis would generate an overestimation of R&D expenditure in innovations.


Acs, Z. J. 2002. Innovation and the growth of cities, Edward Elgar., D.B. Audretsch y M.P. Feldman. 1991. Real effects of academic research:Comment, American Economic Review, 82(1): 363-367.

Adams, J. D. 2002. Comparative localization of academic and industrial spillovers, Journal of Economic Geography, 2(3): 253-278.

Aiello, F. y P. Cardamone. 2008 R&D spillovers and firms’ performance in Italy. Evidence from a flexible production function, Empirical Economics, 34(1): 143-166.

Alvarez, R., C. Bravo Ortega y L. Navarro. 2010. Innovation, R&D, investment and productivity in Chile, IDB Working Paper Series, núm. IDB-WP-190.

Anselin, L., A. Varga y Z. Acs. 1997. Local geographic spillovers between university research and high technology innovations, Journal of Urban Economics, 42(3): 422-448.. 2000. Geographic and sectoral characteristics of academic knowledge externalities, Papers in Regional Science, 79(4): 435-443.

Arbeláez, M.A. y M. Parra. 2011. Innovation, R&D investment and productivity in Colombian firms, IDB Working Paper Series, núm. IDB-WP-251.

Autant Bernard, C. 2001. The geography of knowledge spillovers and technological proximity, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 10(4): 237-254.

Benavente, J.M. 2006. The role of research and innovation in promoting productivity in Chile, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 15(45):301-315.

Cabral, R. y F.J. González. 2014. Gasto en investigación y desarrollo y productividad en la industria manufacturera mexicana, Estudios Económicos, 29(1): 27-55.

Calderón Madrid, A. 2012. Análisis del impacto en productividad de las actividades de desarrollo tecnológico e innovaciones de las empresas: aplicación del modelo CDM en el caso de México (mimeo).

Chudnovsky, D., A. López y G. Pupato. 2006. Innovation and productivity indeveloping countries: A study of Argentine manufacturing firms’ behavior (1992-2001), Research Policy, 35(2): 266-288.

Cohen, W.M. y S. Klepper. 1996. A reprise of size and R&D, Economic Journal, 106(437): 925-951.

Crepon, B., E. Duguet y J. Mairessec. 1998. Research, innovation and productivity: An econometric analysis at the firm level, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 7(2): 115-158.

Crespi, G., A. Maffioli y A. Rasteletti. 2014. Invirtiendo en ideas: políticas de estımulo a la innovación, en G. Crespi, E. Fernández y E. Stein (comps.)¿Cómo repensar el desarrollo productivo? Políticas e instituciones sólidas para la transformación económica, Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, pp. 65-117.

Crespi, G. y P. Zuñiga. 2012. Innovation and productivity: Evidence from six Latin American countries, World Development, 40(2): 273-290.

Dutrenit, G., C. de Fuentes, F. Santiago, A. Torres y N. Gras. 2013. Innovation and productivity in the service sector. The case of Mexico, Discussion Paper, num. IDB-DP-293.

Germán Soto, V. y L. Gutiérrez. 2013. Assessing some determinants of the regional patenting: An essay from the Mexican states, Technology and In- vestment, 4(3): 1-9.

Germán Soto, V. y L. Gutiérrez. 2015. A standardized coefficients model to analyze the regional patents activity: Evidence from the Mexican states, Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 6(1): 72-89.

Germán Soto, V., L. Gutiérrez, y S. H. Tovar. 2009. Factores y relevancia geográfica del proceso de innovación regional en México, 1994-2006, Estudios Económicos, 24(2): 225-248.

Goedhuys, M. 2007. The impact of innovation activities on productivity and firm growth: Evidence from Brazil, UNU-MERIT, Working Papers Series, núm. 2007-002.

Goya, E., E. Vayá y J. Suriñach. 2016. Innovation spillovers and firm performance: Micro evidence from Spain (2004-2009), Journal of Productivity Analysis, 45(1): 1-22.

Greene, W.H. 2003. Econometric Analysis, Prentice Hall.

Griffith, R., E. Huergo, J. Mairesse y B. Peters. 2006. Innovation and productivity across four European countries, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 22(4): 483-498.

Griliches, Z. 1979. Issues in assessing the contribution of research and development to productivity growth, Bell Journal of Economics, 10(1): 92-116.

Griliches, Z. 1990. Patent statistics as economic indicators: A survey, Journal of Economic Literature, 28(4): 1661-1707.

Grossman, G. M. y E. Helpman. 1991. Innovation and Growth in the Global Economy, MIT Press.

Hall, B. H. y J. Mairesse. 2006. Empirical studies of innovation in the knowledgedriven economy, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 15(4-5):289-299.

INEGI. 2015. Encuesta sobre investigación y desarrollo tecnológico (ESIDET) 2012, <>;

Jaffe, A. B. 1989. Real effects of academic research, American Economic Review, 79(5): 957-970.

Kaiser, U. 2002. Measuring knowledge spillovers in manufacturing and services: An empirical assessment of alternative approaches, Research Policy, 31(1): 125-144.

Karlson, K. B., A. Holm y R. Breen. 2012. Comparing regression coefficients between same-sample nested models using logit and probit: A new method, Sociological Methodology, 42(1): 286-313.

Keilbach, M. 2000. Spatial knowledge spillovers and the dynamics of agglomeration and regional growth, en Spatial Knowledge Spillovers and the Dynamics of Agglomeration and Regional Growth, Serie Contributions to Economics, capitulo 4, Physica-Verlag.

Krugman, P. 1991. Geography and Trade, MIT Press. Mairesse, J. y P. Mohnen. 2002. Accounting for innovation and measuring innovativeness: An illustrative framework and an application, American Economic Review, 92(2): 226-230.

Mansfield, E. 1984. Using linked patent and R&D data to measure interindustry technology flows. Comment, en Z. Griliches (comp.) R&D, Patents, and Productivity, cap. 20, University of Chicago Press, pp. 462-464.

OCDE. 2010. Perspectivas OCDE: México, políticas clave para un desarrollo sostenible, OECD Publishing.

OCDE. 2015. Estudios económicos de la OCDE: Mexico 2015, OECD Publishing.

Raffo, J., S. Lhuillery y L. Miotti. 2008. Northern and Southern innovativity: A comparison across European and Latin American countries, The European Journal of Development Research, 20(2): 219-239.

Scherer, F. M. 1983. The propensity to patent, International Journal of Industrial Organization, 1(1): 107-128.

Wooldridge, J. M. 2002. Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data, MIT Press.